Monday, 23 July 2012

Prevention of Injuries & Violence

Injuries & Violence :

Injuries remain the most important cause of loss of potential years of life before age 65. Homicide and motor vehicle accidents are a major cause of injury-related deaths among young adults, and accidental falls are the most common cause of injury-related death in the elderly. Other causes of injury-related deaths include suicide and accidental exposure to smoke, fire, and flames.
Although there has been a steady decline in motor vehicle accident deaths per miles driven, road traffic injuries remain the tenth leading cause of death and the ninth leading cause of the burden of disease. Although seat belt use protects against serious injury and death in motor vehicle accidents, at least one-fourth of adults and one-third of teenagers do not use seat belts routinely. Air bags are protective for adults but not for small children.
Each year in the United States, more than 500,000 people are nonfatally injured while riding bicycles. The rate of helmet use by bicyclists and motorcyclists is significantly increased in states with helmet laws. Young men appear most likely to resist wearing helmets. Clinicians should try to educate their patients about seat belts, safety helmets, the risks of using cellular telephones while driving, drinking and driving—or using other intoxicants or long-acting benzodiazepines and then driving—and the risks of having guns in the home.
Long-term alcohol abuse adversely affects outcome from trauma and increases the risk of readmission for new trauma. Alcohol and illicit drug use are associated with an increased risk of violent death. There is a causal link between alcohol intoxication and injury due to assault. Harm reduction can be achieved through practical measures, such as using plastic glasses and bottles in licensed premises; controlling prices of drinks; and targeted policing based on police, accident, and emergency data.
Males aged 16–35 are at especially high risk for serious injury and death from accidents and violence, with blacks and Latinos at greatest risk. For 16- and 17-year-old drivers, the risk of fatal crashes increases with the number of passengers. Deaths from firearms have reached epidemic levels in the United States and will soon surpass the number of deaths from motor vehicle accidents. Having a gun in the home increases the likelihood of homicide nearly threefold and of suicide fivefold. In 2002, an estimated 877,000 individuals successfully committed suicide. Educating physicians to recognize and treat depression as well as restricting access to lethal methods have been found to reduce suicide rates.
In elderly patients, the risk of hip fracture when falling can be reduced by as much as 80% by wearing hip protectors, but only about half of patients use them regularly. Oral vitamin D supplementation with 700–800 international units/d appears to reduce the risk of hip and other nonvertebral fractures in both ambulatory and institutionalized elderly persons, but 400 international units/d is not sufficient for fracture prevention.
Finally, clinicians have a critical role in detection, prevention, and management of physical or sexual abuse—in particular, routine assessment of women for risk of domestic violence. In a trial, the 12-month prevalence of intimate partner violence ranged from 4% to 18% depending on the screening method, instrument, and health care setting. Rates of current domestic violence on exit questionnaire were 21% in suburban emergency department and 26% in urban emergency department settings. Inclusion of a single question about domestic violence in the medical history—"At any time, has a partner ever hit you, kicked you, or otherwise physically hurt you?"—can increase identification of this common problem. Another screen consists of three questions: (1) "Have you ever been hit, kicked, punched, or otherwise hurt by someone within the past year? If so, by whom?" (2) "Do you feel safe in your current relationship?" (3) "Is there a partner from a previous relationship who is making you feel unsafe now?" Women seem to prefer written, self-completed screening questionnaires to face-to-face questioning. Alternatively, computer prompts to clinicians may serve as useful reminders to inquiry. Assessment for abuse and offering of referrals to community resources creates potential to interrupt and prevent recurrence of domestic violence and associated trauma. Screening patients in emergency departments for intimate partner violence appears to have no adverse effects related to screening and may lead to increased patient contact with community resources.

Friday, 20 July 2012

Cancer Prevention

Prevention of cancer :

Primary Prevention:
Mortality rates of cancer have begun to decrease in the past 2 years; part of this decrease results from reductions in tobacco use, since cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of cancer. Preventive health examinations and preventive gynecologic examinations are among the most common reasons for ambulatory care visits, although the use and content of these types of visits remains controversial. Primary prevention of skin cancer consists of restricting exposure to ultraviolet light by wearing appropriate clothing and use of sunscreens. In the past 2 decades, there has been a threefold increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma and a fourfold increase in melanoma in the United States. Persons who engage in regular physical exercise and avoid obesity have lower rates of breast and colon cancer. Prevention of occupationally induced cancers involves minimizing exposure to carcinogenic substances such as asbestos, ionizing radiation, and benzene compounds. Chemoprevention has been widely studied for primary cancer prevention (see above Chemoprevention section and Chapter 39: Cancer). Use of tamoxifen, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer prevention is discussed in Chapter 17: Breast Disorders and Chapter 39: Cancer. Hepatitis B vaccination can prevent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and screening and vaccination programs may be cost-effective and useful in preventing HCC in high-risk groups such as Asians and Pacific Islanders. The use of HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer is discussed above in the Prevention of Infectious Disease section.

Screening & Early Detection:
Screening has been shown to prevent death from cancers of the breast, colon, and cervix. Current cancer screening recommendations from the American Cancer Society, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, and the United States Preventive Services Task Force are shown in Table 1–9.
Cancer screening recommendations for average-risk adults.
Test ACS1
Breast self-examination (BSE) An option for women over age 20. Fair evidence that BSE should not be used.  Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against.  
Clinical breast examination Every 3 years age 20–40 and annually thereafter. Good evidence for annual screening women aged 50-69 by clinical examination and mammography. Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against.  
Mammography Annually age 40 and older. Current evidence does not support the recommendation that screening mammography be included in or excluded from the periodic health examination of women aged 40–49. Recommended every 1–2 years for women aged 40 and over (B).  
Papanicolaou test Annually beginning within 3 years after first vaginal intercourse or no later than age 21. Screening may be done every 2 years with the liquid-based Pap test. Annually at age of first intercourse or by age 18; can move to every-2-year screening after two normal results to age 69. Every 3 years beginning at onset of sexual activity or age 21 (A).  
  After age 30, women with three normal tests may be screened every 2–3 years or every 3 years by Pap test plus the HPV DNA test.       
  Women may choose to stop screening after age 70 if they have had three normal (and no abnormal) results within the last 10 years.   Recommends against routinely screening women older than age 65 if they have had adequate recent screening with normal Pap tests and are not otherwise at high risk for cervical cancer (D).  
Annual stool test for occult blood4 or fecal immunochemical test (FIT)
Screening recommended, with the combination of fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and sigmoidoscopy preferred over stool test or sigmoidoscopy alone. Double-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy also considered reasonable alternatives. Good evidence for screening every 1–2 years over age 50. Screening strongly recommended (A), but insufficient evidence to determine best test.  
Sigmoidoscopy (every 5 years) Fair evidence for screening over age 50 (insufficient evidence about combining stool test and sigmoidoscopy).  
Double-contrast barium enema (every 5 years) Not addressed.  
Colonoscopy (every 10 years) Insufficient evidence for or against use in screening.  
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test PSA and DRE should be offered annually to men age 50 and older who have at least a 10-year life expectancy. Men at high risk (African American men and men with a strong family history) should begin at age 45. Information should be provided to men about the benefits and risks, and they should be allowed to participate in the decision. Men without a clear preference should be screened. Fair evidence against including in routine care.  Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against.  
Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) Insufficient evidence for or against including in routine care. Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against.  
Cancer-related checkup For people aged 20 or older having periodic health exams, a cancer-related checkup should include counseling and perhaps oral cavity, thyroid, lymph node, or testicular examinations. Not assessed. Not assessed.  

Home test with three samples
Recommendation A: The USPSTF strongly recommends that clinicians routinely provide the service to eligible patients. (The USPSTF found good evidence that the service improves important health outcomes and concludes that benefits substantially outweigh harms.)
Recommendation B: The USPSTF recommends that clinicians routinely provide the service to eligible patients. (The USPSTF found at least fair evidence that the service improves important health outcomes and concludes that benefits substantially outweigh harms.)
Recommendation D: The USPSTF recommends against routinely providing the service to asymptomatic patients. (The USPSTF found at least fair evidence that the service is ineffective or that harms outweigh benefits.)

The appropriate form and frequency of screening for breast cancer is controversial. A large randomized trial of breast self-examination conducted among factory workers in Shanghai found no benefit. A systematic review performed for the United States Preventive Services Task Force found that mammography was moderately effective in reducing breast cancer mortality for women 40–74 years of age. The absolute benefit was greater for older women, and the risk of false-positive results was high for all women. Digital mammography is more sensitive in women with dense breasts and younger women; however, studies exploring outcomes are lacking. Several organizations, including the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute, recommend routine mammography screening, and changes in screening guidelines appear to impact women's beliefs about how frequently they should obtain screening. Although delays to following up an abnormal mammogram exist, the use of patient navigation programs to reduce such delays appears beneficial, especially among poor and minority populations. The use of MRI is not currently recommended for general screening, although the American Cancer Society does recommend screening MRI for women at high risk ( 20–25%), including those with a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer. A recent systematic review reported that screening with both MRI and mammography might be superior to mammography alone in ruling out cancerous lesions in women with an inherited predisposition to breast cancer.

All current recommendations call for cervical and colorectal cancer screening. Prostate cancer screening, however, is controversial, as no completed studies have answered the question whether early detection and treatment after screen detection produce sufficient benefits to outweigh harms of treatment. A 2008 USPSTF review of current evidence on benefits and harm of screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing revealed that PSA screening is associated with increased psychological harm with uncertain potential benefits. Providers and patients are advised to discuss how to proceed in light of this uncertainty. Whether early detection through screening and subsequent treatment alters the natural course of the disease remains to be seen. There are still no data on the morbidity and mortality benefits of screening. Unlike the American College of Physicians, the American Cancer Society recommends that providers offer annual PSA testing for men over age 50. Screening is not recommended by any group for men who have estimated life expectancies of less than 10 years. Decision aids have been developed to help men weigh the arguments for and against PSA screening.

Annual or biennial fecal occult blood testing reduces mortality from colorectal cancer by 16–33%. The risk of death from colon cancer among patients undergoing at least one sigmoidoscopic examination is reduced by 60–80% compared with that among those not having sigmoidoscopy. Colonoscopy has also been advocated as a screening examination. It is more accurate than flexible sigmoidoscopy for detecting cancer and polyps, but its value in reducing colon cancer mortality has not been studied directly. Recent studies have shown that CT colography (virtual colonoscopy) is also able to detect cancers and polyps with reasonable accuracy.

Screening for cervical cancer with a Papanicolaou smear is indicated in sexually active adolescents and in adult women every 1–3 years. Screening for vaginal cancer with a Papanicolaou smear is not indicated in women who have undergone hysterectomies for benign disease with removal of the cervix—except in diethylstilbestrol (DES)-exposed women (see Chapter 18: Gynecologic Disorders). Women over age 70 who have had normal results on three or more previous Papanicolaou smears may elect to stop screening.
Screening for lung cancer with spiral CT can detect early stage disease; however, its efficacy in reducing lung cancer mortality has not been evaluated in a randomized trial, although a recent study of survival in asymptomatic patients at risk for lung cancer who were screened annually with spiral CT revealed that such screening detected lung cancer at a curable stage.  

Tuesday, 17 July 2012

Prevention of Overweight Obesity

Overweight Obesity:

Obesity is now a true epidemic and public health crisis that both clinicians and patients must face. Normal body weight is defined as a body mass index (BMI), calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared, of < 25 kg/m2; overweight is defined as a BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, and obesity as a BMI > 30 kg/m2. The prevalence of obesity in US children, adolescents, and adults has grown dramatically since 1990. In 2003–2004, 17% of US children and adolescents were overweight and 32% of adults were obese. Among men, the prevalence of obesity increased significantly between 1999 and 2000 (28%) and between 2003 and 2004 (31%). Among women, no significant increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed between 1999 and 2000 (33%) or between 2003 and 2004 (33%). The prevalence of extreme obesity (BMI  40) in 2003–2004 was 3% in men and 7% in women. Prevalence varies by race and age, with older African American and Latina women having the greatest prevalence of obesity. This trend has been linked both to declines in physical activity and to increased caloric intake in diets rich in fats and carbohydrates.

Adequate levels of physical activity appear to be important for the prevention of weight gain and the development of obesity. However, as noted above, only about 20% of Americans are physically active at a moderate level, and only 8% at a more vigorous level, and 60% report irregular or no leisure time physical activity. In addition, only 3% of Americans meet four of the five recommendations for the intake of grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and meat of the Food Guide Pyramid. Only one of four Americans eats the recommended five or more fruits and vegetables per day.

Risk assessment of the overweight and obese patient begins with determination of BMI, waist circumference for those with a BMI of 35 or less, presence of comorbid conditions, and a fasting blood glucose and lipid panel. Obesity is clearly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cancer, osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and asthma. One of the most important sequelae of the rapid surge in prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1990 and 2000 has been a dramatic 30–40% increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, almost one-quarter of the US population currently has the metabolic syndrome, putting them at high risk for the development of CHD. The relationship between overweight and obesity and diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease is thought to be due to insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Persons with a BMI  40 have death rates from cancers that are 52% higher for men and 62% higher for women than the rates in men and women of normal weight. Significant trends of increasing risk of death with higher BMIs are observed for cancers of the stomach and prostate in men and for cancers of the breast, uterus, cervix, and ovary in women, and for cancers of the esophagus, colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidney, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma in both men and women.

In the Framingham Heart Study, overweight and obesity were associated with large decreases in life expectancy. For example, 40-year-old female nonsmokers lost 3.3 years and 40-year-old male nonsmokers lost 3.1 years of life expectancy because of overweight, and 7.1 years and 5.8 years of life expectancy, respectively, because of obesity. Obese female smokers lost 7.2 years and obese male smokers lost 6.7 years of life expectancy compared with normal-weight smokers, and 13.3 years and 13.7 years, respectively, compared with normal-weight nonsmokers. Clinicians must work to identify and provide the best prevention and treatment strategies for patients who are overweight and obese. Patients with abdominal obesity (high waist to hip size ratio) are at particularly increased risk. Control of visceral obesity in addition to other cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia) is essential to reducing cardiovascular risk.

CURRENT Practice Guidelines in Primary Care :

Prevention of overweight and obesity involves both increasing physical activity and dietary modification to reduce caloric intake. Clinicians can help guide patients to develop personalized eating plans to reduce energy intake, particularly by recognizing the contributions of fat, concentrated carbohydrates, and large portion sizes (see Chapter 29: Nutritional Disorders). Patients typically underestimate caloric content, especially when consuming food away from home. Providing patients with caloric and nutritional information may help address the current obesity epidemic. To prevent the long-term chronic disease sequelae of overweight or obesity, clinicians must work with patients to modify other risk factors, eg, by smoking cessation (see above) and strict glycemic and blood pressure control (see Chapter 27: Diabetes Mellitus & Hypoglycemia and Systemic Hypertension).

Lifestyle modification, including diet, physical activity, and behavior therapy, has been shown to induce clinically significant weight loss. Other treatment options for obesity include pharmacotherapy and surgery. One potentially effective diet strategy is the replacement of caloric beverages with low-calorie or noncaloric beverages. As noted above, in overweight and obese persons, at least 60 minutes of moderate-high intensity physical activity may be necessary to maximize weight loss and prevent significant weight regain. Counseling interventions or pharmacotherapy can produce modest (3–5 kg) sustained weight loss over 6–12 months. Pharmacotherapy appears safe in the short term; long-term safety is still not established. As an example, in a multicenter trial, treatment with 20 mg/d of rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, plus diet for 2 years produced modest but sustained reductions in weight and waist circumference and favorable changes in metabolic risk factors. Counseling appears to be most effective when intensive and combined with behavioral therapy. Maintenance strategies can help preserve weight loss.

In dietary therapy, results from the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial showed that a low-fat diet high in vegetables, fruits, and grains produced a modest (2.2 kg, P < .001) weight loss that was sustained over prolonged follow-up (1.9 kg, P < .001 at 1 year, 0.4 kg, P = .01 at 7.5 years). A recent study comparing various diets revealed that Mediterranean (moderate fat, restricted calorie) and low-carbohydrate (non-restricted calorie) diets are effective alternatives to low-fat diets.

Weight loss strategies using dietary, physical activity, or behavioral interventions can produce significant improvements in weight among persons with prediabetes and a significant decrease in diabetes incidence. Multicomponent interventions including very-low-calorie or low-calorie diets hold promise for achieving weight loss in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Bariatric surgical procedures, eg, vertical banded gastroplasty and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, are reserved for patients with morbid obesity whose BMI exceeds 40, or for less severely obese patients (with BMIs between 35 and 40) with high-risk comorbid conditions such as life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems (eg, severe sleep apnea, pickwickian syndrome, and obesity-related cardiomyopathy) or severe diabetes mellitus. In selected patients, surgery can produce substantial weight loss (10 to 159 kg) over 1 to 5 years, with rare but sometimes severe complications. Nutritional deficiencies are one complication of bariatric surgical procedures and close monitoring of a patient's metabolic and nutritional status is essential.

Clinicians seem to share a general perception that almost no one succeeds in long-term maintenance of weight loss. However, research demonstrates that approximately 20% of overweight individuals are successful at long-term weight loss (defined as losing 10% of initial body weight and maintaining the loss for 1 year). National Weight Control Registry members who lost an average of 33 kg and maintained the loss for more than 5 years have provided useful information about how to maintain weight loss. Members report engaging in high levels of physical activity (approximately 60 min/d), eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet, eating breakfast regularly, self-monitoring weight, and maintaining a consistent eating pattern from weekdays to weekends. The development and implementation of innovative public health strategies is essential in the fight against obesity. Lessons learned from smoking cessation campaigns may be helpful in the battle against this significant public health concern.

Monday, 2 July 2012

Prevention of Physical Inactivity

Physical Inactivity :

Lack of sufficient physical activity is the second most important contributor to preventable deaths, trailing only tobacco use. A sedentary lifestyle has been linked to 28% of deaths from leading chronic diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended that every adult in the United States should engage in 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week. This guideline complements previous advice urging at least 20–30 minutes of more vigorous aerobic exercise three to five times a week.
Patients who engage in regular moderate to vigorous exercise have a lower risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, diverticular disease, and osteoporosis. Current evidence supports the recommended guidelines of 30 minutes of moderate physical activity on most days of the week in both the primary and secondary prevention of CHD. Between 1980 and 2000, an estimated 5% of the decrease in US deaths from CHD among adults aged 25–84 years resulted from increases in physical activity.
In older nonsmoking men, walking 2 miles or more per day is associated with an almost 50% lower age-related mortality. The relative risk of stroke was found to be less than one-sixth in men who exercised vigorously compared with those who were inactive; the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus was about half among men who exercised five or more times weekly compared with those who exercised once a week. Glucose control is improved in diabetics who exercise regularly, even at a modest level. In sedentary individuals with dyslipidemia, high amounts of high-intensity exercise produce significant beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein profiles. Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer (although not rectal cancer) in men and women and of breast and reproductive organ cancer in women. Finally, weight-bearing exercise (especially resistance and high-impact activities) increases bone mineral content and retards development of osteoporosis in women and contributes to a reduced risk of falls in older persons. Resistance training has been shown to enhance muscular strength, functional capacity, and quality of life in men and women with and without CHD and is endorsed by the American Heart Association.
Exercise may also confer benefits on those with chronic illness. Men and women with chronic symptomatic osteoarthritis of one or both knees benefited from a supervised walking program, with improved self-reported functional status and decreased pain and use of pain medication. Exercise produces sustained lowering of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. In addition, physical activity can help patients maintain ideal body weight. Individuals who maintain ideal body weight have a 35–55% lower risk for myocardial infarction than with those who are obese. Physical activity reduces depression and anxiety; improves adaptation to stress; improves sleep quality; and enhances mood, self-esteem, and overall performance.
In longitudinal cohort studies, individuals who report higher levels of leisure time physical activity are less likely to gain weight. Conversely, individuals who are overweight are less likely to stay active. However, at least 60 minutes of daily moderate-intensity physical activity may be necessary to maximize weight loss and prevent significant weight regain. Moreover, adequate levels of physical activity appear to be important for the prevention of weight gain and the development of obesity. Physical activity also appears to have an independent effect on health-related outcomes such as development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with impaired glucose tolerance when compared with body weight, suggesting that adequate levels of activity may counteract the negative influence of body weight on health outcomes.
However, physical exertion can rarely trigger the onset of acute myocardial infarction, particularly in persons who are habitually sedentary. Increased activity increases the risk of musculoskeletal injuries, which can be minimized by proper warm-up and stretching, and by gradual rather than sudden increase in activity. Other potential complications of exercise include angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden death, and asthma. In insulin-requiring diabetics who undertake vigorous exercise, the need for insulin is reduced; hypoglycemia may be a consequence.
Only about 20% of adults in the United States are active at the moderate level—and only 8% currently exercise at the more vigorous level—recommended for health benefits. Instead, 60% report irregular or no leisure time physical activity.
The value of routine electrocardiography stress testing prior to initiation of an exercise program in middle-aged or older adults remains controversial. Patients with ischemic heart disease or other cardiovascular disease require medically supervised, graded exercise programs. Medically supervised exercise prolongs life in patients with congestive heart failure. Exercise should not be prescribed for patients with decompensated congestive heart failure, complex ventricular arrhythmias, unstable angina pectoris, hemodynamically significant aortic stenosis, or significant aortic aneurysm. Five- to 10-minute warm-up and cool-down periods, stretching exercises, and gradual increases in exercise intensity help prevent musculoskeletal and cardiovascular complications.
Physical activity can be incorporated into any person's daily routine. For example, the clinician can advise a patient to take the stairs instead of the elevator, to walk or bike instead of driving, to do housework or yard work, to get off the bus one or two stops earlier and walk the rest of the way, to park at the far end of the parking lot, or to walk during the lunch hour. The basic message should be the more the better and anything is better than nothing.
To be more effective in counseling about exercise, clinicians can also incorporate motivational interviewing techniques, adopt a whole practice approach (eg, use practice nurses to assist), and establish linkages with community agencies. Clinicians can incorporate the "5 As" approach:
1. Ask (identify those who can benefit).
2. Assess (current activity level).
3. Advise (individualize plan).
4. Assist (provide a written exercise prescription and support material).
5. Arrange (appropriate referral and follow up).
Such interventions have a moderate effect on self-reported physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness, even if they do not always help patients achieve a predetermined level of physical activity. In their counseling, clinicians should advise patients about both the benefits and risks of exercise, prescribe an exercise program appropriate for each patient, and provide advice to help prevent injuries or cardiovascular complications.
Although primary care providers regularly ask patients about physical activity and advise them with verbal counseling, few providers provide written prescriptions or perform fitness assessments. Tailored interventions may potentially help increase physical activity in individuals. Exercise counseling with a prescription, eg, for walking at either a hard intensity or a moderate intensity-high frequency, can produce significant long-term improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness. To be effective, exercise prescriptions must include recommendations on type, frequency, intensity, time, and progression of exercise and must follow disease-specific guidelines. In addition, published research suggests that getting patients to change physical activity levels requires motivational strategies beyond simple exercise instruction including patient education about goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem-solving. For example, helping patients identify emotionally rewarding and physically appropriate activities, meet contingencies, and find social support will increase rates of exercise continuation.
Some physical activity is always preferable to a sedentary lifestyle. For home-bound elderly who have limited mobility and strength, such physical activity could focus on "functional fitness," such as mobility, transfers, and performing activities of daily living. Exercise-based rehabilitation can protect against falls and fall-related injuries and improve functional performance.

Wednesday, 20 June 2012

Osteoporosis Prevention

Prevention of Osteoporosis :

Osteoporosis, characterized by low bone mineral density, is common and associated with an increased risk of fracture. The lifetime risk of an osteoporotic fracture is approximately 50% for women and 30% for men. Osteoporotic fractures can cause significant pain and disability. As such, research has focused on means of preventing osteoporosis and related fractures. Primary prevention strategies include calcium supplementation, vitamin D supplementation, and exercise programs. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis found that calcium supplementation of 1200 mg per day or more (with or without vitamin D) could decrease fracture risk for adults (mainly women were studied) over age 50. Screening for osteoporosis on the basis of low bone mineral density is also recommended for women over age 60, based on indirect evidence that screening can identify women with low bone mineral density and that treatment of women with low bone density with bisphosphonates is effective in reducing fractures. The effectiveness of screening for osteoporosis in younger women and in men has not been established. In addition, real-world adherence to pharmacologic therapy for osteoporosis is low: one-third to one-half of patients do not take their medication as directed. Vitamin D deficiency is common and can increase the risk of fracture. Screening to detect vitamin D deficiency in older adults has been proposed, but has not yet been rigorously evaluated.

Thursday, 14 June 2012


Chemo :
As discussed in Heart Disease and Nervous System Disorders, regular use of low-dose aspirin (81–325 mg) can reduce the incidence of myocardial infarction in men. Low-dose aspirin reduces stroke but not myocardial infarction in middle-aged women. Based on its ability to prevent cardiovascular events, aspirin use is cost-effective for men and women who are at increased risk. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce the incidence of colorectal adenomas and polyps but may also increase heart disease and gastrointestinal bleeding, and thus are not recommended for colon cancer prevention in average risk patients. Antioxidant vitamin (vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene) supplementation produced no significant reductions in the 5-year incidence of—or mortality from—vascular disease, cancer, or other major outcomes in high-risk individuals with coronary artery disease, other occlusive arterial disease, or diabetes mellitus.

Monday, 4 June 2012

Smoking Treatments

Smoking Treatment :

Smoking Treatments.
Component Examples
Encouragement of the patient in the quit attempt Note that effective cessation treatments are now available.
Note that half the people who have ever smoked have now quit.  
Communicate belief in the patient's ability to quit.
Communication of caring and concern Ask how the patient feels about quitting.
Directly express concern and a willingness to help.
Be open to the patient's expression of fears of quitting, difficulties experienced, and ambivalent feelings.
Encouragement of the patient to talk about the quitting process Ask about
  Reasons that the patient wants to quit.
  Difficulties encountered while quitting.
  Success the patient has achieved.
  Concerns or worries about quitting.
Provision of basic information about smoking and successful quitting Inform the patient about
  The nature and time course of withdrawal.
  The addictive nature of smoking.
  The fact that any smoking (even a single puff) increases the likelihood of full relapse. 

 Clinical Guidelines For Prescribing Nicotine Replacement Products.
1. Who should receive nicotine replacement therapy? 
  Available research shows that nicotine replacement therapy generally increases rates of smoking cessation. Therefore, except in special circumstances, the clinician should encourage the use of nicotine replacement with patients who smoke. Little research is available on the use of nicotine replacement with light smokers (ie, those smoking 10–15 cigarettes/d). If nicotine replacement is to be used with light smokers, a lower starting dose of the nicotine patch or nicotine gum should be considered.
2. Should nicotine replacement therapy be tailored to the individual smoker? 
  Research does not support the tailoring of nicotine patch therapy (except with light smokers as noted above). Patients should be prescribed the patch dosages outlined in Table .
  Research supports tailoring nicotine gum treatment. Specifically, research suggests that 4-mg gum rather than 2-mg gum be used with patients who are highly dependent on nicotine (eg, those smoking > 20 cigarettes/d, those who smoke immediately upon awakening, and those who report histories of severe nicotine withdrawal symptoms). Clinicians may also recommend the higher gum dose if patients request it or have failed to quit using the 2-mg gum.

Suggestions For The Clinical Use Of The Nicotine Patch.
Parameter of Clinical Use Suggestions
Patient selection Appropriate as a primary pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.
Precautions Pregnancy: Pregnant smokers should first be encouraged to attempt cessation without pharmacologic treatment. The nicotine patch should be used during pregnancy only if the increased likelihood of smoking cessation, with its potential benefits, outweighs the risk of nicotine replacement and potential concomitant smoking. Similar factors should be considered in lactating women.
Cardiovascular diseases: While not an independent risk factor for acute myocardial events, the nicotine patch should be used only after consideration of risks and benefits among particular cardiovascular patient groups: those in the immediate (within 2 weeks) post-myocardial infarction period, those with serious arrhythmias, and those with severe or worsening angina pectoris.
Skin reactions: Up to 50% of patients using the nicotine patch will have a local skin reaction. Skin reactions are usually mild and self-limiting but may worsen over the course of therapy. Local treatment with hydrocortisone cream (2.5%) or triamcinolone cream (0.5%) and rotating patch sites may ameliorate such local reactions. In fewer than 5% of patients do such reactions require the discontinuation of nicotine patch treatment.
Treatment of 8 weeks or less has been shown to be as efficacious as longer treatment periods. Based on this finding, we suggest the following treatment schedules as reasonable for most smokers. Clinicians should consult the package insert for other treatment suggestions. Finally, clinicians should consider individualizing treatment based on specific patient characteristics such as previous experience with the patch, number of cigarettes smoked, and degree of addiction.
Brand  Duration (weeks)  Dosage (mg/h) 
Nicoderm and Habitrol 4 21/24
then 2 14/24
then 2 7/24
Prostep 4 22/24
then 4 11/24
Nicotrol 4 15/16
then 2 10/16
then 2 5/16
Prescribing instructions Abstinence from smoking: The patient should refrain from smoking while using the patch.  
Location: At the start of each day, the patient should place a new patch on a relatively hairless location between the neck and the waist. 
Activities: There are no restrictions while using the patch. 
Time: Patches should be applied as soon as patients awaken on their quit day. 

Suggestions For The Clinical Use Of Nicotine Gum.
Parameter of Clinical Use Suggestions
Patient selection Appropriate as a primary pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.
Precautions Pregnancy: Pregnant smokers should first be encouraged to attempt cessation without pharmacologic treatment. Nicotine gum should be used during pregnancy only if the increased likelihood of smoking cessation, with its potential benefits, outweighs the risk of nicotine replacement and potential concomitant smoking.
Cardiovascular diseases: Although not an independent risk factor for acute myocardial events, nicotine gum should be used only after consideration of risks and benefits among particular cardiovascular patient groups: those in the immediate (within 2 weeks) post-myocardial infarction period, those with serious arrhythmias, and those with serious or worsening angina pectoris.
Adverse effects: Common adverse effects of nicotine chewing gum include mouth soreness, hiccups, dyspepsia, and jaw ache. These effects are generally mild and transient and can often be alleviated by correcting the patient's chewing technique (see "Prescribing instructions" below).
Dosage Dosage: Nicotine gum is available in doses of 2 mg and 4 mg per piece. Patients who smoke less than 25 cigarettes per day should be prescribed the 2-mg gum initially. The 4-mg gum should be prescribed to patients who express a preference for it, have failed with the 2-mg gum but remain motivated to quit, and/or smoke more than 25 cigarettes per day. The gum is most commonly prescribed for the first few months of a quit attempt. Clinicians should tailor the duration of therapy to fit the needs of each patient. Patients using the 2-mg strength should use not more than 30 pieces per day, whereas those using the 4-mg strength should not exceed 20 pieces per day. 
Prescribing instructions Abstinence from smoking: The patient should refrain from smoking while using the gum.  
Chewing technique: The gum should be chewed slowly until a "peppery" taste emerges, then "parked" between cheek and gum to facilitate nicotine absorption through the oral mucosa. Gum should be slowly and intermittently chewed and parked for about 30 minutes.
Absorption: Acidic beverages (eg, coffee, juices, soft drinks) interfere with the buccal absorption of nicotine, so eating and drinking anything except water should be avoided for 15 minutes before and during chewing.
Scheduling of dose: A common problem is that patients do not use enough gum to get the maximum benefit: they chew too few pieces per day and do not use the gum for a sufficient number of weeks. Instructions to chew the gum on a fixed schedule (at least 1 piece every 1 to 2 hours) for at least 1 to 3 months may be more beneficial than ad lib use. 

Suggestions For The Clinical Use Of Bupropion SR.
Parameter of Clinical Use Suggestions
Patient selection Appropriate as a first-line pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.
Precautions Pregnancy: Pregnant smokers should be encouraged to quit first without pharmacologic treatment. Bupropion SR should be used during pregnancy only if the increased likelihood of smoking abstinence, with its potential benefits, outweighs the risk of bupropion SR treatment and potential concomitant smoking. Similar factors should be considered in lactating women (FDA Class B).
Cardiovascular diseases: Generally well tolerated; infrequent reports of hypertension. 
Side effects: The most common side effects reported by bupropion SR users were insomnia (35–40%) and dry mouth (10%).
Contraindications: Bupropion SR is contraindicated in individuals with a history of seizure disorder, a history of an eating disorder, who are using another form of bupropion (Wellbutrin or Wellbutrin SR), or who have used an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days.
Dosage Patients should begin with a dose of 150 mg every morning for 3 days, then increase to 150 mg twice daily. Dosing at 150 mg twice daily should continue for 7–12 weeks following the quit date. Unlike nicotine replacement products, patients should begin bupropion SR treatment 1–2 weeks before they quit smoking. For maintenance therapy, consider bupropion SR 150 mg twice daily for up to 6 months.
Prescribing instructions Cessation prior to quit date: Recognize that some patients will lose their desire to smoke prior to their quit date, or will spontaneously reduce the amount they smoke. 
Scheduling of dose: If insomnia is marked, taking the evening dose earlier (in the afternoon, at least 8 hours after the first dose) may provide some relief. 
Alcohol: Use alcohol only in moderation. 

Friday, 25 May 2012

Cigarette Smoking

Cigarette smoking

Cigarette smoking remains the most important cause of preventable morbidity and early mortality. In 2000, there were an estimated 4.8 million premature deaths in the world attributable to smoking, 2.4 million in developing countries and 2 million in industrialized countries. More than three-quarters (3.8 million) of these deaths were in men. The leading causes of death from smoking were cardiovascular diseases (1.7 million deaths), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (1 million deaths), and lung cancer (0.9 million deaths). Nicotine is highly addictive, raises brain levels of dopamine, and produces withdrawal symptoms on discontinuation. Cigar smoking has also increased; there is also continued use of smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff), particularly among young people. Tobacco dependence may have a genetic component.

Cigarettes are responsible for one in every five deaths in the United States, yet smoking prevalence rates have been increasing among high school and college students. Currently, 23% of US adults and 26% of US young adults are smokers.

Smokers have twice the risk of fatal heart disease, 10 times the risk of lung cancer, and several times the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and cervix; a twofold to threefold higher incidence of stroke and peptic ulcers (which heal less well than in nonsmokers); a twofold to fourfold greater risk of fractures of the hip, wrist, and vertebrae; four times the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease; and a twofold increase in cataracts. In the United States, over 90% of cases of COPD occur among current or former smokers. Both active smoking and passive smoking are associated with deterioration of the elastic properties of the aorta (increasing the risk of aortic aneurysm) and with progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis. Smoking has also been associated with increased risks of leukemia, of colon and prostate cancers, of breast cancer among postmenopausal women who are slow acetylators of N-acetyltransferase-2 enzymes, osteoporosis, and Alzheimer's disease. In cancers of the head and neck, lung, esophagus, and bladder, smoking is linked to mutations of the P53 gene, the most common genetic change in human cancer. Patients with head and neck cancer who continue to smoke during radiation therapy have lower rates of response than those who do not smoke. Olfaction and taste are impaired in smokers, and facial wrinkles are increased. Heavy smokers have a 2.5 greater risk of age-related macular degeneration. Smokers die 5–8 years earlier than never-smokers.

The children of smokers have lower birth weights, are more likely to be mentally retarded, have more frequent respiratory infections and less efficient pulmonary function, have a higher incidence of chronic ear infections than children of nonsmokers, and are more likely to become smokers themselves.

In addition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has been shown to increase the risk of cervical cancer, lung cancer, invasive pneumococcal disease, and heart disease; to promote endothelial damage and platelet aggregation; and to increase urinary excretion of tobacco-specific lung carcinogens. The incidence of breast cancer may be increased as well. Of approximately 450,000 smoking-related deaths in the United States annually, as many as 53,000 are attributable to environmental tobacco smoke.

Smoking cessation reduces the risks of death and of myocardial infarction in people with coronary artery disease; reduces the rate of death and acute myocardial infarction in patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary revascularization; lessens the risk of stroke; slows the rate of progression of carotid atherosclerosis; and is associated with improvement of COPD symptoms. On average, women smokers who quit smoking by age 35 add about 3 years to their life expectancy, and men add more than 2 years to theirs. Smoking cessation can increase life expectancy even for those who stop after the age of 65.
Although tobacco use constitutes the most serious common medical problem, it is undertreated. Almost 40% of smokers attempt to quit each year, but only 4% are successful. Factors associated with successful cessation include having a rule against smoking in the home, being older, and having greater education. Persons whose physicians advise them to quit are 1.6 times as likely to attempt quitting. Over 70% of smokers see a physician each year, but only 20% of them receive any medical quitting advice or assistance.

Several effective interventions are available to promote smoking cessation, including counseling, pharmacotherapy, and combinations of the two. The five steps for helping smokers quit are summarized in Table 1–3. Common elements of supportive smoking cessation treatments are reviewed in Table 1–4. A system should be implemented to identify smokers, and advice to quit should be tailored to the patient's level of readiness to change. Pharmacotherapy to reduce cigarette consumption is ineffective in smokers who are unwilling or not ready to quit. Conversely, all patients trying to quit should be offered pharmacotherapy except those with medical contraindications, women who are pregnant or breast-feeding, and adolescents.

 Actions and strategies for the primary care clinician to help patients quit smoking.
Action Strategies for Implementation
Step 1. Ask—Systematically Identify All Tobacco Users at Every Visit 
Implement an officewide system that ensures that for every patient at every clinic visit, tobacco-use status is queried and documented1
Expand the vital signs to include tobacco use.
  Data should be collected by the health care team.
  The action should be implemented using preprinted progress note paper that includes the expanded vital signs, a vital signs stamp or, for computerized records, an item assessing tobacco-use status.
Alternatives to the vital signs stamp are to place tobacco-use status stickers on all patients' charts or to indicate smoking status using computerized reminder systems.
Step 2. Advise—Strongly Urge All Smokers to Quit 
In a clear, strong, and personalized manner, urge every smoker to quit  Advice should be
  Clear:"I think it is important for you to quit smoking now, and I will help you. Cutting down while you are ill is not enough." 
  Strong:"As your clinician, I need you to know that quitting smoking is the most important thing you can do to protect your current and future health." 
   Personalized: Tie smoking to current health or illness and/or the social and economic costs of tobacco use, motivational level/readiness to quit, and the impact of smoking on children and others in the household.  
Encourage clinic staff to reinforce the cessation message and support the patient's quit attempt.
Step 3. Attempt—Identify Smokers Willing to Make a Quit Attempt 
Ask every smoker if he or she is willing to make a quit attempt at this time If the patient is willing to make a quit attempt at this time, provide assistance (see step 4).
If the patient prefers a more intensive treatment or the clinician believes more intensive treatment is appropriate, refer the patient to interventions administered by a smoking cessation specialist and follow up with him or her regarding quitting (see step 5).
If the patient clearly states he or she is not willing to make a quit attempt at this time, provide a motivational intervention.
Step 4. Assist—Aid the Patient in Quitting 
A. Help the patient with a quit plan Set a quit date. Ideally, the quit date should be within 2 weeks, taking patient preference into account.  
Help the patient prepare for quitting. The patient must:  
  Inform family, friends, and coworkers of quitting and request understanding and support.  
  Prepare the environment by removing cigarettes from it. Prior to quitting, the patient should avoid smoking in places where he or she spends a lot of time (eg, home, car).  
  Review previous quit attempts. What helped? What led to relapse?  
  Anticipate challenges to the planned quit attempt, particularly during the critical first few weeks.  
B. Encourage nicotine replacement therapy except in special circumstances Encourage the use of the nicotine patch or nicotine gum therapy for smoking cessation (see Table 1–5, Table 1–6, and Table 1–7 for specific instructions and precautions).
C. Give key advice on successful quitting Abstinence: Total abstinence is essential. Not even a single puff after the quit date.  
Alcohol: Drinking alcohol is highly associated with relapse. Those who stop smoking should review their alcohol use and consider limiting or abstaining from alcohol use during the quit process.  
Other smokers in the household: The presence of other smokers in the household, particularly a spouse, is associated with lower success rates. Patients should consider quitting with their significant others and/or developing specific plans to maintain abstinence in a household where others still smoke.  
D. Provide supplementary materials Source: Federal agencies, including the National Cancer Institute and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; nonprofit agencies (American Cancer Society, American Lung Association, American Heart Association); or local or state health departments. 
Selection concerns: The material must be culturally, racially, educationally, and age appropriate for the patient.  
Location: Readily available in every clinic office. 
Step 5. Arrange—Schedule Follow-Up Contact 
Schedule follow-up contact, either in person or via telephone1
Timing: Follow-up contact should occur soon after the quit date, preferably during the first week. A second follow-up contact is recommended within the first month. Schedule further follow-up contacts as indicated. 
Actions during follow-up: Congratulate success. If smoking occurred, review the circumstances and elicit recommitment to total abstinence. Remind the patient that a lapse can be used as a learning experience and is not a sign of failure. Identify the problems already encountered and anticipate challenges in the immediate future. Assess nicotine replacement therapy use and problems. Consider referral to a more intense or specialized program.

Thursday, 17 May 2012

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm : 
Screening  for abdominal aortic aneurysm in men aged 65-75 years is associated with a significant reduction in condition-specific mortality (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.45 to 0.74]). This benefit is sustained through 7 years of followup. Women do not appear to benefit, and the most of the benefit in men appears to accrue among current or former smokers.

Friday, 11 May 2012

Cardiovascular Disease prevention

Cardiovascular Disease :
Cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, represent two of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries.

Several risk factors increase the risk for coronary disease and stroke. They can be divided into those that are modifiable (eg, lipid disorders, hypertension, cigarette smoking) and those that are not (eg, gender, age, family history of early coronary disease). This section considers the role of screening for and treating modifiable risk factors.

Impressive declines in age-specific mortality rates from heart disease and stroke have been achieved in all age groups in North America during the past 2 decades. The chief reasons for this favorable trend appear to be modification of risk factors, especially cigarette smoking and hypercholesterolemia, plus more aggressive detection and treatment of hypertension and better care for patients with heart disease. African-Americans appear to have a greater proportion of risk attributable to these key risk factors, suggesting that focusing on better control could help reduce disparities in health outcomes.

Sunday, 6 May 2012

Infectious Disease Prevention

Infectious Disease :

Much of the decline in the incidence and fatality rates of infectious diseases is attributable to public health measures—especially immunization, improved sanitation, and better nutrition.
Immunization remains the best means of preventing many infectious diseases. In the United States, childhood immunization has resulted in near elimination of measles, mumps, rubella, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive disease has been reduced by more than 9500 since the introduction of the first conjugate vaccines.
However, substantial vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality continue to occur among adults from vac-cine-preventable diseases, such as hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, and pneumococcal infections. For example, in adults in the United States, there are an estimated 50,000– 70,000 deaths annually from influenza, hepatitis B, and nVasiVe pneumococcal disease. Influenza vaccination is recommended for adults age 50 and older, and it has been documented that annual influenza immunization with Inactivated vaccine (administered intramuscularly) pre¬vents cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality in persons with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease. Rates of influenza vaccination have increased. Self- reported rates of influenza vaccine coverage in adults older than 65 years increased from 300o in 1989 to 70% in 2004. However, vaccination rates were higher for non-Hispanic whites compared with other ethnic minority groups.
The American College of Physicians recommends that clinicians should review each adult's immunization status at age 50; assess risk factors that would indicate a need for pneumococcal vaccination and annual influenza immuni-zations; reimmunize at age 65 those who received an immunization against pneumococcus more than 6 years before; ensure that all adults have completed a primary diphtheria-tetanus immunization series, and administer a single booster at age 50; and assess the postvaccination serologic response to hepatitis B vaccination in all recipi¬ents who have ongoing risks of exposure to blood or body fluids (eg, sharp in)uries, blood splashes).
Strategies have also been proposed to improve influenza, pneumococcal polysaccharide, and hepatitis B vaccination. Strategies to enhance vaccinations in general include increasing community demand for vaccinations; enhancing access to vaccination services; and provider- or system based interventions, such as reminder systems. Increasing reports of pertussis among US adolescents, adults, and their infant contacts have stimulated vaccine development for older age groups. A safe and effective tetanus-diphthena 5- component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is available for use in adolescents and in adUltS younger than age 65. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (AC.11') I e, int mends routine use 01 a single dose of Tdap for adults aged 19-64 years to replace the next booster dose of tetanus and diphtheria tmoids vaccine (Td). Further research is needed to elucidate the role of vaccination in persons older than 65 years and to determine whether future booster doses of Tdap are needed.
A new recombinant protein hepatitis E vaccine has been developed that has proven safe and efficacious in preventing hepatitis E among high risk populations (such as those in Nepal). Both hepatitis A vaccine and immune globulin provide protection against hepatitis A; however, administration of immune globulin may provide a modest benefit over vaccination in some settings.
Recommended immunization schedules for children and adolescents and adults are set forth in Tables 30-12 and 30-13. Thimerosal-free hepatitis B vaccination is available for newborns and infants, and despite the dis¬proved relationship between vaccines and autism, thime¬rosal-free vaccines are available for pregnant women.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines have demonstrated effectiveness in preventing per¬sistent HPV infections, and thus may impact the rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 11-11I. The Ameri¬can Cancer Society and the American Academy of Pediat¬rics (AAP) recommends routine HPV vaccination for girls aged 11-12 years. The AAP also recommends that all unvaccinated girls and women ages 13-26 years receive the HPV vaccine. Trials demonstrate efficacy of bivalent HPV (16/18) or quadrivalent HPV (6/11/16/18)L1 virus-like par-ticle vaccines in preventing new HPV infection and cervical lesions but not in women with preexisting infection. It is estimated that routine use of HPV vaccination of females at 11 to 12 years of age and catch-up vaccination of females at age 13-16 (with vaccination of girls age 9 and 10 at the discretion of the physician) could prevent 95% to 100% of CIN and adenocarcinoma in situ, 99% of genital warts and approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide; thus, the role of HPV testing will need redefinition. Despite the effectiveness of the vaccine, rates of immunization are low. Interventions addressing personal beliefs and system barriers to vaccinations may help address the slow adoption of this vaccine.
Persons traveling to countries where infections are endemic should take precautions described in Chapter 30. Immunization registries—confidential, population-based, computerized information systems that collect vaccination data about all residents of a geographic area—can be used to increase and sustain high vaccination coverage.

Skin testing for tuberculosis and treating selected patients reduce the risk of reactivation tuberculosis . Two blood tests, which are not confounded by prior BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) vaccination, have been developed to detect tuberculosis infection by measur¬ing in vitro T-cell interferon-gamma release in response to two antigens (the enzyme-linked immunospot [ELISPOT], [T-SPOT.TB] and the other, a quatitative ELISA [Quantiferon- TBGlod] test ) . These T-Cell-based assays have an excellent specificity that is higher than tuberculin skin testing in BCG-vaccinated populations. The rate of tuberculosis in thc United States has been declining since 1992, although this decline has slowed in recent years. In 2007 the tuberculosis rate was the lowest recorded since national reporting began in 1953. The Advisory Council for rhe Elimination of Tuberculosis has called for a renewed corn. rnitment to eliminating tuberculosis in the United States, and the Institute of Medicine has published a detailed plan for achieving that goal. Patients with HIV infection are at an especially high risk for tuberculosis, and tuberculosis preventive therapy in the era of HIV will require further work to overcome implementation barriers and to identify optimal duration of preventive therapy and treatment approach for individuals receiving highly active antiretro¬viral therapy (HAART).
Treatment of tuberculosis poses a risk of hepatotoxicity and thus requires close monitoring of liver transaminases. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) monitoring during the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is recommended for certain individuals (preexisting liver disease, pregnancy, chronic alcohol consumption). ALT should be monitored in HIV-infected patients during treatment of tuberculosis disease and should be considered in patients over the age of 35. Symptomatic patients with an ALT elevation three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or asymptomatic patients with an elevation five times the ULN should be treated with a modified or alternative regimen.
HIV infection is now the major infectious disease prob-lem in the world, and it affects 850,000-950,000 persons in the United States. Since sexual contact is a common mode of transmission, primary prevention relies on eliminating unsafe sexual behavior by promoting abstinence, later onset of first sexual activity, decreased number of partners, and use of latex condoms. Appropriately used, condoms can reduce the rate of HIV transmission by nearly 700/0. In one study, couples with one infected partner who used condoms incon¬sistently had a considerable risk of infection: the rate of seroconversion was estimated to be IPA, after 24 months. No seroconversions were noted with consistent condom use Unfortunately, as many as one-third of HIV-positive per¬sons continue unprotected sexual practices after learning that they are HIV-infected. Tailored group educational intervention focused on practicing "safer sex" can red.' their transmission-risk behaviors with partners who are not HIV-positive. Other approaches to prevent HIV infection include treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, develop¬ment of vaginal microbicides, and vaccine developriT. Increasingly, cases of HIV infection are transmitted by 111/e0" tion drug use. HIV prevention activities should include provision of sterile injection equipment for these individuals.

With regard to secondary prevention, many HIV- infected persons in the United States receive the diagnosis advanced stages of immunosuppression, and almost all will progress to AIDS if untreated. On the other hand. HAAR' substantially reduces the risk of clinical progression or death in patients with advanced immtmosuppression. SreenthrT tests for HIV are extremely (> 99%)  Accurate.While the benifits of HIV screening appear to outweigh its harms,current screening is generally based on individual pattient risk factors. Such screening can identify persons at risk  for AIDS but misses a substantial proportion of those infected.

Nonetheless, the yield from screening higher prevalence populations is substantially greater than that from screening the general population, and more widespread screening of the population remains controversial.
In immunocompromised patients, live vaccines are con¬traindicated but many killed or component vaccines are safe and recommended. Asymptomatic HIV infectedpatients have not shown adverse consequences when given live MMR and influenza vaccinations as well as tetanus, hepatitis B, H influenzae type b, and pneumococcal vaccinations—all should be given. However, if poliomyelitis immunization is required, the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine is indicated. In symptomatic HIV-infected patients, live virus vaccines such as MMR should generally be avoided, but annual influenza vaccination is safe.
Whenever possible, immunizations should be com-pleted before procedures that require or induce immuno¬suppression (organ transplantation or chemotherapy), or that reduce immunogenic responses (splenectomy). How¬ever, if this is not possible, the patient may mount only a partial immune response, yet even this partial response can be beneficial. Patients who undergo allogeneic bone mar¬row transplantation lose preexisting immunities and should be revaccinated. In many situations, family mem¬bers should also be vaccinated to protect the immunocom¬promised patient, although oral live polio vaccine should be avoided because of the risk of infecting the patient.
New cases of poliomyelitis have been reported in the United States, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic recently, slowing its eradication in the Western Hemisphere. Worldwide eradication of poliovirus, including endemic areas such as India, remains challenging.
The current epidemic of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza within duck and poultry populations in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in a human influenza pandemic. In 2003 through 2005, there were 138 confirmed cases of human infection with H5N1 avian influenza in Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China, and Cambodia, with a mortality rate of > 50./o. To Prevent and prepare for an increase in human cases, public health officials are working to improve detection methods and to stockpile effective antivirals, such as oseltamivir. The development of an H5N1 vaccine is underway. Two trials have demonstrated development of neutralizing antibodies using a vaccine with varying doses of hemagglutinin antigen.
Herpes zoster, caused by reactivation from previous varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, affects many older adults and people with immune system dysfunction. Whites are at higher risk than other ethnic groups and the incidence in adults age 65 and older may be higher than previously described. It can cause postherpetic neuralgia, a potentially debilitating chronic pain syndrome. A varicella vaccine is available for the prevention of herpes zoster. Several clinical trials have shown that this vaccine (Zostavax) is safe, elevates VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity, and significantly reduces the incidence of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in persons older than 60 years. In one randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among more than 38,000 older adults, the vaccine reduced the incidence of N.herpetic neuralgia by 66% and the incidence of herpes zoster by 51%. The vaccine is administered as a one-time subcutaneous dose (0.65 mL) and is approved for adults 60 years of age and older. However, durability of vaccine response and whether any booster vaccination is needed are still uncertain. The cost effectiveness of the vaccine varies substantially, and the patient's age should be considered in vaccine recommendations. One study reported a cost-effec¬tiveness exceeding $100,000 per quality-adjusted life year saved.
In 2008, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) reviewed evidence to reaffirm its recom-mendation on screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults. New evidence was reviewed, which continues to support routine screening in pregnant women but not in other groups of adults.

Tuesday, 1 May 2012

Disease Prevention And Health Maintenance

Disease Prevention And Health Maintenance : 
Preventive medicine can be categorized as primary, second-ary, or tertiary. Primary prevention aims to remove or reduce disease risk factors (eg, immunization, giving up or not starting smoking). Secondary prevention techniques promote early detection of disease or precursor states (eg, routine cervical Papanicolaou screening to detect carcinoma or dysplasia of the cervix). Tertiary prevention measures are aimed at limiting the impact of established disease (eg, partial mastectomy and radiation therapy to remove and control localized breast cancer). Table 1-1 gives data for deaths from preventable causes in the United States. Table 1-2 compares recommendations for periodic health examinations as developed by the United States Preventive Services Task Force, the American College of Physicians, and the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Despite emerging consensus on many of the services, controversy persists for others. Many effective preventive services are underutilized. and few adults receive all of the most strongly recommended services. In 2006, the National Commission on Prevention Priorities ranked clinical preventive service recommendations up to December 2004. The three highest-ranking services were discussing aspirin use with high-risk adults, tobacco-use screening and brief interventions, and immunizing children. Other high-ranking services with data indicating low current utilization rates (< 50%) included screening adults aged 50 and older for colorectal cancer, iminunizing adults aged 65 and older against pneumococcal disease' and screening young women for Chlarnydia. Several methods, including the use of reminder systems or financial incentives, can increase utilization of preventive services, but such methods have not been widely adopted.

Table: 1-2